Review articles
Wahren J, Ekberg K, Shafqat J, Johansson J, Johansson B-L, Jörnvall H: Biological effects of C-peptide and proinsulin. In International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus DeFronzo R, Ferranninni E, Keen H, Zimmet P, Eds. Chichester, John Wiley, 2004, p. 165-182

Johansson J, Ekberg K, Shafqat J, Henriksson M, Chibalin A, Wahren J, Jörnvall H: Molecular effects of proinsulin C-peptide. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 295:1035-1040, 2002

Wahren J, Ekberg K, Samnegård B, Johansson B-L: C-peptide: a new potential in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Current Diabetes Reports 1:261-266, 2001

Cellular effects of C-peptide
Zhong Z, Kotova O, Davidescu A, Ehrén I, Ekberg K, Wahren J, Chibalin A: C- peptide stimulates Na+,K+-ATPase via activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in human renal tubular cells. Cell Mol Life Sci 61:2782-2790, 2004

Zhong Z, Davidescu A, Ehrén I, Ekberg K, Jörnvall H, Wahren J, Chibalin A: C-peptide stimulates ERK1/2 and JNK MAP kinases via activation of PKC in human renal tubular cells. Diabetologia 48.187-197, 2005

Shafqat J, Juntti-Berggren L, Zhong Z, Ekberg K, Köhler M, Berggren P-O, Johansson J, Wahren J, Jörnvall H: Proinsulin C-peptide and its analogues induce intracellular Ca2+ increases in human renal tubular cells. Cell Mol Life Sci 59:1185-1189, 2002

Pramanik A, Ekberg K, Zhong Z, Shafqat T, Henriksson M, Tally M, Tibell A, Jansson O, Wahren J, Jörnvall H, Rigler R, Johansson J: C-peptide binding to human cell membranes: importance of Glu27. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 284:94-98, 2001

Kitamura T, Kimura K, Okamoto S, Canas X, Sakane N, Yoshida T, Saito M: Proinsulin C-peptide rapidly stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinases in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts: requirement of protein kinase C, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. Biochem. J. 355:123-129, 2001

Rigler R, Pramanik A, Jonasson P, Kratz G, Jansson O, Nygren P-Å, Ståhl S, Ekberg K, Johansson B-L, Uhlén S, Uhlén M, Jörnvall H, Wahren J: Specific binding of proinsulin C-peptide to human cell membranes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:13318-13323, 1999

Ohtomo Y, Bergman T, Johansson B-L, Jörnvall H, Wahren J: Differential effects of proinsulin C-peptide fragments on Na+,K+-ATPase activity of renal tubule segments. Diabetologia 41:287-291, 1998

Ohtomo Y, Aperia A, Sahlgren B, Johansson B-L, Wahren J: C-peptide stimulates rat renal tubular Na+,K+ATPase activity in synergism with neuropeptide Y. Diabetologia 39:199-205, 1996

Nerve function
Ekberg K, Brismar T, Johansson B-L, Jonsson B, Lindström P, Wahren J: Amelioration of sensory nerve dysfunction by C-peptide in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes:52: 536-541, 2003

Zhang W, Yorek M, Pierson C, Murakawa Y, Breidenbach A, Sima A: Human C-peptide dose dependently prevents early neuropathy in the BB/Wor rat. Int J Experimental Diab Res 2:187-193, 2001

Cotter M, Cameron N: C-peptide effects on nerve conduction and blood flow in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: modulation by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. Diabetes 50:A184, 2001

Sima A, Zhang W, Sugimoto K, Henry D, Li Z, Wahren J, Grunberger G: C-peptide prevents and improves chronic type 1 diabetic neuropathy in the BB/Wor rat. Diabetologia 44:889-897, 2001

Johansson B-L, Borg K, Fernqvist-Forbes E, Kernell A, Odergren T, Wahren J: Beneficial effects of C-peptide on incipient nephropathy and neuropathy in patients with type I diabetes - a three-month study. Diabetic Medicine 17:181-189, 2000

Ido Y, Vindigni A, Chang K, Stramm L, Chance R, Heath W, DiMarchi R, DiCera E, Williamson J: Prevention of vascular and neural dysfunction in diabetic rats by C-peptide. Science 277:563-566, 1997

Johansson B-L, Borg K, Fernqvist-Forbes E, Odergren T, Remahl S, Wahren J: C-peptide improves autonomic nerve function IDDM patients. Diabetologia 39:687-695, 1996

Renal function
Huang D-Y, Richter K, Breidenbach A, Vallon V: Human C-peptide acutely lowers glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in diabetic rats: a dose-response study. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 365:67-73, 2002

Samnegård B, Jacobson S, Jaremko G, Johansson B-L, Sjöquist M: Effects of C-peptide on glomerular and renal size and renal function in diabetic rats. Kidney Int 60:1258-1265, 2001

Johansson B-L, Borg K, Fernqvist-Forbes E, Kernell A, Odergren T, Wahren J: Beneficial effects of C-peptide on incipient nephropathy and neuropathy in patients with type I diabetes - a three-month study. Diabetic Medicine 17:181-189, 2000

Johansson B-L, Sjöberg S, Wahren J: The influence of human C-peptide on renal function and glucose utilization in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 35:121-128, 1992

Myocardial function
Hansen A, Johansson B-L, Wahren J, Bibra von H: C-peptide exerts beneficial effects on myocardial blood flow and function in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 51:3077-3082, 2002

Johansson B-L, Sundell J, Ekberg K, Jonsson C, Wahren J, Nuutila P, Knuuti J, Raitakari O, Seppänen M, Luotolahti M: Adenosine-induced myocardial vasodilatation is improved by C-peptide in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 45 (suppl 2):A197, 200

Young L, Ikeda Y, Scalia R, Lefer A: C-peptide exerts cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ 279:H1453-H1459, 2000

Blood flow
Fernqvist-Forbes E, Johansson B-L, Eriksson M: Effects of C-peptide on forearm blood flow and brachial artery dilatation in patients with type 1 diabetes. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 172:159-165, 2001

Kunt T, Schneider S, Pfützner A, Goitum K, Engelbach M, Schauf B, Beyer J, Forst T: The effect of human proinsulin C-peptide on erythrocyte deformability in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 42:465-471, 1999

Jensen J, Messina E: C-peptide induces a concentration-dependent dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles only in presence of insulin. Am J Physiol Heart Circ 276:H1223-H1228, 1999

Forst T, Kunt T, Pohlmann T, Goitom K, Engelbach M, Beyer J, Pfützner A: Biological activity of C-peptide on the skin microcirculation in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J. Clin. Invest. 101:2036-2041, 1998

Lindström K, Johansson C, Johnsson E, Haraldsson B: Acute effects of C-peptide on the microvasculature of isolated perfused skeletal muscle and kidneys in rat. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 156:19-25, 1996

Johansson B-L, Linde B, Wahren J: Effects of C-peptide on blood flow, capillary diffusion capacity and glucose utilization in the exercising forearm of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 35:1151-1158, 1992

Glucose metabolism
Li Z-G, Qiang X, Sima A, Grunberger G: C-peptide attenuates protein tyrosine phosphatase activity and enhances glycogen synthesis in L6 myoblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 280:615-619, 2001

Ling L, Oshida Y, Kusunoki M, Yamanouchi K, Johansson B-L, Wahren J, Sato Y: Rat C-peptide I and II stimulate glucose utilization in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetologia 42:958-964, 1999

Zierath J, Handberg A, Tally M, Wallberg-Henriksson H: C-peptide stimulates glucose transport in isolated human skeletal muscle independent of insulin receptor and tyrosine kinase activation. Diabetologia 39:306-313, 1996

Zierath J, Galuska D, Johansson B-L, Wallberg-Henriksson H: Effect of human C-peptide on glucose transport in in vitro incubated human skeletal muscle. Diabetologia 34:899-901, 1991


Fredriksson A, Ekberg K, Ingvar M, Johansson B-L, Wahren J, Stone-Elander S: In vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 18F-labeled human C-peptide: evaluation in monkeys using positron emission tomography. Life Sciences 71:1361-1370, 2002

Leclercq-Meyer V, Malaisse WJ, Johansson B-L, Wahren J: Effect of C-peptide on insulin and glucagon released by isolated perfused rat pancreas. Diabetes & Metabolism 23:149-154, 1997